Description

Significant monuments or architectural groups:

Church of Agios Stephanos

Church of Agios StephanosThe church that survives today, dedicated to St. Stephen, is built upon the basilica of early Christian period, probably in the mid 6th century. AD The basilica was triple, double narthex and apse in the middle of the aisle; along the north side was the long outbuilding with small arch. After its destruction, probably by an earthquake, it was built in the ruined nave of the two-aisled vaulted church of St. Stephen. Built with ancient architectural elements, mainly from the Basilica, the church dating to the 8th or 9th century. AD when the inhabitants of Thera, like the other islands have suffered from Arab raids and their construction was rough and humble, unlike those of the first Christian centuries. The two Christian monuments are eloquent witnesses of the occupation of the city after ancient times.

Artemidoros Mosque

Artemidoros MosqueThe mosque was founded in the mid-3rd century. BC The founder and priest of Artemidorus Apollonius of Perge in Pamphylia, led by a dream he saw, settled in old age in Thira. For its activity by establishing sanctuaries and landscaping the city, he was honored twice with an olive wreath and received the right of hunting citizen. The outdoor shrine is carved from the same rock: altars, reliefs and numerous inscriptions, mostly epigrams for gods and honored him, covering the face of the rock, while statues adorned the room; here was rigged and resolutions of the municipality of Thira in honor of Artemidorus. From right to left are carved three levels with inscriptions in honor of Hecate and Priapus, the altars of the Dioscuri, Omonia and the Gods of Samothrace, the eagle of Zeus, the lion of Stephanephoroi Apollo; forward the throne of the goddess Tychis; and dolphin Pelagia Poseidon. The set completes the portrait of Artemidorus crowned; inscribed around wishes to stay his name immortal in eternity.

Royal Lodge

Royal LodgeThe imposing building with elongated Doric colonnade on the long axis that dominates the southern market, housed official and political functions and doubtless was the administrative center of the city. Its construction dates from the early 3rd century. BC, over the centuries, however, the building underwent repairs. Two stone slabs, built opposite the entrance, referring to a major repair done in the mid-2nd century. AD On one indicated public promise (prosecutor) Citizenship T. Flavius ​​Kleitostheni Klavdianou assume repair costs of the building and the resolution of other demos and Congress in his honor for his benefits offered by the city. During this repair, the northern part of the building stood in a separate space with pedestal for installation of statues, who apparently was dedicated to the worship of the Roman emperor and his relatives. The building additionally embellished with rich sculptural decoration. According to the inscriptions, the “Royal Lodge” or “the arcade to the market,” as they call it, was an old and a separate building, a city gem.

Ancient Theater

Ancient TheaterSituated close to the market, in densely built downtown, the theater was used, according to inscriptions, and parliament. Despite its small size and simple architectural form, belonged to the most imposing buildings of the Hellenistic; Roman city. In place of probably existed a simpler construction for gatherings. The theater seems partly built in the 2nd century. BC In the north, the only free from side buildings, opened two entrances, one up to the hollow and one by the orchestra. Six scales in radial arrangement dividing the auditorium with a capacity of about 1,500 people, in five tiers. The building setting with stone foreground, leaving free the circular space of the orchestra. In the 1st century. AD Roman-style building built scene with spotlight, decorated with statues of the imperial family, which occupied part of the orchestra. Beneath the concave, a large tank gathered rainwater. Simultaneously with the hollow elongated building was built in the west of the theater, for which, however, remains unknown whether internally linked to the theater or had no public use.

Sanctuary of Apollo Karneios

Sanctuary of Apollo KarneiosThe southern end of the ridge where the central road ended, away from the busy city center, was, since its foundation, an important religious center. Exechousa position in the region possessed by Apollo Karneios sacred and great artificial Square for the annual festival, its Karneia.

The cult of Apollo Karneios, god of the Dorians, dominated the religious life of the inhabitants of Thera throughout antiquity. The sanctuary was established in honor of a prominent place, probably in the 7th century. BC The space provided impressive enclosure with entrance from the sacred way that adorned the small porch. Today the portico are preserved only traces of the rocky ground. The spaces of the sacred developed an array. The entrance opens onto the central courtyard; on the threshold of the entrance, two engraved feet still bear witness to the passage a pilgrim. Right courtyard an unknown use building, and left, at a higher level, the temple to the courtyard. Two majestic doors lead from the courtyard to the churchyard, which in the 3rd-2nd century. BC It was decorated with a mosaic floor. The church, simple house with a flat roof, consisted of vestibule, nave and two side rooms, probably sanctuaries. Among the four columns supporting the roof of the nave would be mounted Akrolithi cult statue of the god.

Junior High School

Number of inscriptions from the 2nd century. BC to the 2nd century. AD testify to the use of the building, the few, but the building remains preclude interpretation or accurate dating of the sites built gradually. Core of the plant was the natural cave formed in a sanctuary dedicated to Hermes and Heracles, patrons of the gymnasium. The premises of the school were organized around a large courtyard, where it led stepped cobbled pathway. Buildings relics are preserved only in the north and east side of the court, since the southern part has largely precipitated the steep slope. The north side are two spacious rectangular rooms that open to the courtyard, while the eastern areas and smaller circular building, probably attested inscriptions aleiptirio, heated building where louontan and anoint with oil before and after sport. Responsible operation of the school was gymnasiarch, assisted by ypogymnasiarcho. Epigraphic evidence here to conduct bare competitions included the sports of wrestling and pankration. In rocky elevations near the gymnasium are numerous inscriptions teenagers names.

Sanctuary of Egyptian gods

During the Hellenistic period, a time of intense receptivity to new gods and cults spread in the Greek cult Eastern and Egyptian deities. In Thera, Egyptian gods Serapis, Isis and Anubis accepted the early 3rd century. BC and worship quickly incorporated in public and private religious lives of prey. The cult of the Egyptian trinity Thera which at that time is acquired Ptolemaic closely linked to the presence and activity on the island large numbers Ptolemaic garrison. In honor of the Egyptian gods, founded the sanctuary in Amisus 3rd century. BC The sanctuary was a peculiar outdoor construction, ie a plateau, made mainly with artificial fill, both sides of which defined the rocky ground. Today mainly survives carved in the rock section of the sanctuary, with niches for offerings on one side and bench for placing the cult statues to another.

Author
Maya Efstathiou, Archaeologist

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